Bitcoin Prices : BTC - AUD, Bitcoin - Australian Dollar Rates
Bitcoin Prices : BTC - AUD, Bitcoin - Australian Dollar Rates
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Bitcoin in Australia: Live AUD Price, Best Exchanges ...
Top 50 cryptocurrency prices Coinbase
MXC Global steps forward in the Turkish cryptocurrency market after partnering with MenaPay
https://preview.redd.it/s9rpzi2sj6e51.png?width=751&format=png&auto=webp&s=f379dd86d47116ba457e201334338eb92060afaf 1. MXC Global Partners with MenaPay to Expand the Market in Turkey and Islamic Countries According to ChainNews, Turkey local time on July 30, MXC Global announced a strategic cooperation with the compliance payment platform MenaPay in fiat currency. MXC will expand the Turkish and Islamic markets with the help of MenaPay. MenaPay is the first SuperApp in the Middle East and North Africa region to fully support blockchain-based non-bank mobile payment solutions under Islamic financial regulations. This means that MXC Global steps forward in the cryptocurrency market, also has expanded further in the Turkish market. As early as March this year, MXC Global has successfully pioneered the cryptocurrency market in Turkey. By cooperating with the local Blockchain Platform Blockchain Turkey Platform (BCTR), MXC Global started to build a sustainable blockchain ecological sharing platform. BCTR was established on the initiative of the Turkish Informatics Foundation (TBV). Its members include AKBank, one of the largest banks in Turkey, Beilbim, a Turkish electronic money and payment services company, as well as MXC Global, a cryptocurrency trading platform. It reflects the truth that MXC Global values the Turkish cryptocurrency market and cryptocurrencies in the field of electronic payments. Obviously, Turkey’s cryptocurrency market is of great significance to MXC Global’s expansion of the global market. It can be informed by Turkey’s geographical location and local cryptocurrency trading volume. Turkey has a population of about 82 million. It spans Europe and Asia. It connects with Georgia , Armenia and Iran in the east, borders the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the south, and the Aegean Sea in the west. It is an important commercial hub connecting Europe and Asia. Its location plays a role. Additionally, Turkey is one of the countries with the largest number of cryptocurrencies in the world after the United States, Japan and South Korea. According to a survey by Ing Bank, 18% of people in Turkey say they own cryptocurrency, which is much higher than the European average, 9%. Coinhills data shows that as of July 17, the trading volume of Turkish fiat currency, Lira to Bitcoin was approximately USD 49.13 million, next to that of the USD, JYP and EUR. Çağla Gül Şenkardeş, MenaPay CEO once said in an interview: “Traders now have the option to deposit with fiat currencies directly to their accounts on MXC Global by MenaPay QR code, bank transfer or credit card options easily in seconds. We will continue investing the technology to improve the integrated payment solution and expanding their services to other sectors as well.” 2. MXC Global Attracts Cryptocurrency Traders Through a Multi-Dimensional Compliance Operation Strategy Nowadays, not only cryptocurrency exchanges are actively expanding global cryptocurrency payment channels, but also traditional electronic payment and business platforms are optimistic about the cryptocurrency payment method. Payment giant PayPal, one of the first companies in the world to support Bitcoin payments, plans to launch a business of selling cryptocurrencies directly to its users and a built-in wallet feature for storing cryptocurrencies earlier this month. The new function is scheduled to be launched within three months at the latest. Rakuten, a Japanese e-commerce giant who announced that it would release cryptocurrencies in 2018, had acquired Everybody’s Bitcoin, a Japanese cryptocurrency exchange, for USD 2.4 million. It also lays out the full range of cryptocurrency applications in the field of electronic payments. In December 2019, Rakuten announced that it supports customers to convert Rakuten Group Super Points into top market cap coins, including Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH). In February, Rakuten declared that it would further support customers in cryptocurrency trading after a business restructuring. With the popularity of cryptocurrencies in the world, more and more e-commerce platforms have to adapt to the current market demand, open cryptocurrency payment methods to meet customers’ needs. MXC Global, a cryptocurrency trading platform, can further expand the cryptocurrency compliance trading market by cooperating with MenaPay, an electronic payment platform, and promote the application of cryptocurrencies in practical scenarios. Apart from MenaPay, MXC Global has also partnered with Banxa, a payment processing platform in Southeast Asia, and Simplex, a European compliant payment company who supports trading in AUD, USD, GBP, EUR etc. Thus, users can use Visa and Master cards to purchase major coins such as BTC and ETH. MXC Global has become an emerging cryptocurrency trading platform after two and a half years’ globally regulated operations. The trading volume accounts for 5% of the global market. Its users come from a diverse background, coving language areas of English, Russian, Korean, Portuguese, Turkish, Vietnamese, Hindi, Malay, India, Africa and so on. Since 2019, MXC Global has successively obtained legal licenses of MTR in Estonian, MSB in the U.S, AUSTRAC in Australian, MSB in Canadian and VQF in Swiss. It is currently one of the global exchanges that have the most multi-country operating licenses. It can provide services under the guidance of local regulatory authorities. MXC Global not only actively seeks registration of legal licenses globally, but also partners with well-known electronic payment companies. It carries out multi-angle global compliance operations to expand cryptocurrency traders.
Binomo boasts more than 50 different assets for their traders to utilise, in addition to spanning across several markets to provide their customers with a flexible and versatile range of different options to pick from. In comparison to more specialised trading platforms, this greater range can be advantageous to traders looking to dabble in different markets or try out different assets. While Binomo only offers High/Low trading contracts, this is more than made up for with the range of assets on offer. The following are some of the current options available to those looking to trade on Binomo:
Commodities e.g. gold and oil
Stocks from popular companies e.g. BMW, Disney and Google
Currency pairs e.g. AUD/USD and GBP/USD
Indices e.g. CAC40 and DAX
Cryptocurrency e.g. Bitcoin and Litecoin
Commodity pairs e.g. silvegold
By offering a broad choice of different assets and options to traders, Binomo ensures its services are suitable for a more comprehensive range of traders, especially when it comes to highly-valued stocks and currency pairs – which many other trading platforms don’t offer alongside more standard commodities or currency pairs. The cryptocurrency range that Binomo offers is one of the areas it lacks in, with only Bitcoin, Litecoin and CRYPTO IDX on offer.
Australians, you need to start buying as much crypto as you can.
I’m Australian, this isn’t meant to be an alarmist or sensationalist post, but the economic situation in our country is a lot more serious than most of us think. First off, the current economic situation. Simply put, our economy is fucked. Our housing market is dangerously overleveraged and because of policies by our government at the time, we never experienced the correction the US and most of the rest of the world did during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. And now the chickens are coming home to roost. Australians are up to their eyeballs in debt, almost half of the housing loans are interest only, it’s the reason the Reserve Bank of Australia hasn’t raised the interest rates since 2016. Because as soon as they do, even by 0.01%, tens of thousands of Australians are going to default on their mortgages. It’s no secret that our housing market is one of the most expensive in the world, and anyone living in our country already knows this. The market value of Australian homes is 4 times the GDP of the country. Our housing market is beyond the point of saving and the bubble is about to pop. And while our mainstream media is trying to convince us that it will deflate slowly, history paints a different picture. And that’s just the start of our problems. It’s no secret that China is our biggest trading partner. We rely on China more than any other developed country in the world. And what is currently happening on the greater global stage? Our most important military ally has engaged in a trade war with China, and the effects of that trade war are starting to be felt. Chinese stocks are in freefall, and that’s only going to be the beginning of the negative effects from Trump’s hardline approach to dealing with China. It doesn’t take a genius to see that this is going to have a devastating effect on our economy. Our biggest trading partner is having a financial gunfight with the USA, which is going to result in them buying less of our stuff. And still that isn’t the end of it. Mining is down. Commodities prices are down. Our manufacturing sector is almost dead. The only thing we have going for us at the moment is agriculture and that can’t prop up the entire economy. You wanna turn white? Read this article from last year. Our economy is teetering on the precipice. You think I’m being dramatic? Well even the Australian MSM can no longer ignore it. With articles like this appearing almost on the daily. Our dollar is in serious trouble, anyone who knows the slightest bit about TA go look at the graphs in that article. Our country is in serious economic trouble. And we don’t know shit about it because our media is a duopoly that makes most of its money from their real estate arms. All signs are pointing to our dollar about to be worth a hell of a lot less than it currently is. What can we do? Since this is the crypto subreddit the solution to this impending economic shitstorm should be painfully obvious. Buy fucking Bitcoin. Not the solution for the country, for you. The country isn’t going to do shit for anyone of us except saddle us with debt and a cooked economy that is going to take generations to get out of, if ever. So we should be diversifying. Sure buying gold probably isn’t a stupid idea either, but if you think that is proof against state intervention, read a history book. Even then, gold still needs to be converted into cash to be useful, and anyone paying attention can see that Australia is gearing up for a war on cash that borders on tyrannical. The only way for us as individuals to protect our wealth at the moment is to convert it into cryptocurrency. But Bitcoin is low at the moment! No shit. But if you think it’s going to stay that way you are 1. In the wrong subreddit, and 2. No paying attention to the macro factors of crypto. Wall St is gearing up to enter. The bank that runs the world is getting involved. And not just American banks. Bitcoin may be low now but if you know anything about market cycles, you know that it’ll be back. Here is a good comparison of BTC a few years ago as opposed to now. It’s almost at the point where it’s irresponsible not to be buying bitcoin, and I’m not the only one that holds this opinion. Worst case scenario, bitcoin falls to USD 3k. What do you think is going to happen after that? Bitcoin and crypto aren’t going anywhere and you’re kidding yourself if you think that the value of bitcoin isn’t going to be much higher in the years to come. Of course the RBA is telling people that Bitcoin is dead, probably because they don’t want Australians to dump their soon to be worthless fiat currency. In fact one any given day you’ll see a bunch of anti-crypto propaganda on our MSM. The same MSM that has been telling us all to buy as many houses as we can for the last 20 years. The same MSM that up until now hasn’t said shit about the direction our economy is heading in. The writing’s on the wall people. If we keep our wealth in AUD it’s going to be worth considerably less sooner rather than later. Our property sector is going to crash, our dollar is going to crash, our personal wealth is going to be stripped away from us. If you want to avoid this, if you want to protect your wealth, ensure a future that isn’t financial hardship, then we really only have one choice. Buy bitcoin. Personally I am converting half my pay each week into BTC and just holding it. Not putting it into alts. Just btc. I’d advise you do the same as well. I understand that this sounds super risky. But if you read the articles I’ve linked to in this post I’m sure you’ll see that the only risky move is doing nothing. This isn’t a joke or a false alarm. The notion that our economy has always been fine up until now isn’t valid anymore. If you want to protect your personal wealth and purchasing power in the next few years, you really should be buying as much btc as you can while it is this low. This is what crypto is for, avoiding the negative financial downturns of specific countries. It’s a globally traded commodity that is accessible by anyone with a computer. Our economy tanking isn’t going to affect the price one bit. I hope some of this has been useful. Listen to me, don’t listen to me, it’s your choice. But this is the digital age, there’s no excuse for ignorance anymore.
I brought up Ripple and my parents recognised the name from Ellen, so I wrote them this email.
Ripple created a digital asset called XRP, the intention was to create an asset that could be transacted more efficiently than current global payment systems are able to do. XRP settles all payments in 4 seconds, for 0.00001 XRP (0.03c), and is far more energy efficient than the current system. XRP is transacted through the blockchain but is private and has a 0% error rate. But none of that really matters. XRP just the asset, and like all assets, it holds value. Right now, the market value of 1 XRP is 0.2943c. Let’s break down what the Company Ripple is doing. Ripple has three major projects xVia, xCurrent and xRapid. xCurrent is an end-to-end tracking and messaging system that allows banks to communicate in real-time. This is an automated process that ensures all payments are properly tracked and accounted for. xRapid is the program that uses XRP, when banks want to send global payments xRapid sources liquidity from XRP in the first market (AUD) and then sells the XRP in the new market (USD). This lowers the cost of the transaction, increases the speed and reduces the risk of holding some currencies. xVia, this software is what brings it all together. XVia acts like a plugin on chrome. All you have to do is install it. The Chrome interface is the same and you didn’t have to retrain or learn anything new, but you have the added functionality. Today, Ripples’ Global Head of Strategic Accounts Marcus Treacher announced that Ripple has signed over 100 production contracts. Meaning that over 100 Banks/finical institutions are or will use Ripple technology. Some customers include MUFG, Santander, Westpac & American Express. Earlier this year Ripples CTO left and founded Coil. Coil pays content creators like Youtubers, Authors and Bloggers for the time people spend viewing the content. Right now, it is hard to for independent content creators to earn an income from their work, but coil solves this. Coil uses XRP to pay content creators as regular payment solutions would make it uneconomical. The programs that use XRP (xRapid and Coil) haven’t been launched yet but are expected to later this year Q3 – Q4. On October 1st, 2018 Ripple is hosting an event called Swell and it “brings together leaders in banking and blockchain who are committed to changing the way the world moves money today”. Swell is going to be MASSIVE. Here are some of the key speakers at Swell (an event run by, and about Ripple) • President Bill Clinton • Gene Sperling · National Economic Council Director and National Economic Advisor · (1996-2001, 2011-2014 • Ed Metzger · Head of Innovation at Banco Santander § Banco Santander is the ninth-largest financial service company • Richard Teng • CEO of Abu Dhabi Global Markets Those are just the people speaking the event is going to be packed with the world’s wealthiest and influential people in the financial sector. So why do I care about this? The price of XRP like most assets is determined by demand. When more people want it, the price goes up. During the last Cryptocurrency explosion, Ripple reached above $3 per XRP if someone had bought 1000 XRP for $300 they would have made a profit of around $2700. $2700 is a lot of money but why didn’t it go higher? Here are 3 reasons Reason 1: There wasn’t enough liquidity in the market. There simply weren’t enough platforms that allowed users to buy and sell. Brokers had to close registrations because they couldn’t handle the capacity. Since January 2018 dozens of trading platforms and wallets have been launched. (capital is not investing like that into collapsing markets) Reason 2: The price of XRP has been/is tied to the price of Bitcoin. This is because Bitcoin has a 54% dominance over other cryptocurrencies. Meaning the market value of Bitcoin is 54% higher than the rest of the market combined. Therefore, when the sentiment of Bitcoin falls, and people sell (decreasing demand) the demand for XRP also falls. XRP is no longer ‘just another cryptocurrency’. This kind of innovation and implementation is unlike anything else in the space. XRP is about to completely blow up in value and it’s only a matter of time. Reason 3: There wasn’t a strong proof of concept. The technology was their but no one new how it was going to be used or what to do with it. People wanted to buy XRP for the value, but there was no value without utilisation of the coin. This is solved with the development of xRapid and Coil. I wouldn’t give you investment advice because nothing is a guarantee and the price of XRP could go to 0 but if you want to know anything more about it or want help investing let me know. It’s impossible to predict how high the price of XRP is going to go but predictions range anywhere from $8 to $589 but most point to a ~$50 price. If you invested $100 and the price went to • $8 ~ $2600 • $50 ~ $16 600 • $580 ~ $193 300 If you invest $500 and the price went to • $8 ~ $13 300 • $50 ~ $83 300 • $580 ~ $966 600 Would this be good to send to my parents? They know about Ripple from the appearance on Ellen so I decided to follow up and educated them on it. How many of you are trying to spread the word? Edit:
Ripple didn’t make XRP... that’s embarrassing. It’s strange how much of the XRP community believes that they did.
The purpose of this post is to provide crypto-currency investors and traders with a basic understanding of the laws and prinipals regarding tax treatment for crypto-currency in Australia (including but no limited to Bitcoin) as it applies to individuals, not businesses. At this point in time, this post does not attempt to explain tax treatment for businesses, or when trading in bitcoin is and is not classified as a business. This post is a work in progress and will be updated and improved on an ongoing basis. The Author(s) of this post are not tax accountants. Any advice given and/or any facts presented are based solely on our personal understanding of the rules and determinations made by the ATO and do not constitute financial advice. Please feel free to message any of the moderator team should you wish to dispute any of the facts or wording listed here. Please also feel free to offer suggestions and/or improvements that can be made in the comment section. When in doubt, you should always seek professional advice from a tax accountant.
Captial Gains Tax
First and foremost, lets look at this exerpt from the ATO brief titled "Tax treatment of crypto-currencies in Australia" 
Transacting with bitcoin is akin to a barter arrangement, with similar tax consequences. Our view is that bitcoin is neither money nor a foreign currency, and the supply of bitcoin is not a financial supply for goods and services tax (GST) purposes. Bitcoin is, however, an asset for capital gains tax (CGT) purposes.
So this tells us two things. 1) Crypto-currencies are treated as assets for captial gains tax (CGT) purposes. 2) Crypto-currency trasnactions are treated as barter arrangements, with similar tax consequences. Calculating capital gains tax (CGT) for your investments may sound daunting, but it is really very easy. If you sell a capital asset, such as real estate or shares (or in our case, crypto-currencies), you usually make a capital gain or a capital loss. This is the difference between what it cost you to acquire the asset and what you receive when you dispose of it. You need to report capital gains and losses in your income tax return and pay tax on your capital gains. Although it's referred to as capital gains tax (CGT), this is actually part of your income tax, not a separate tax. This means that the amount of CGT you pay will depend on your own marginal tax rate. When you sell or otherwise dispose of an asset, it's called a capital gains tax (CGT) event. This is the point at which you make a capital gain or loss. Lets work through an example; Alice purchased 1BTC at a price of $6000 AUD per BTC in Janurary of 2016. Over the ourse of the year, the price of Bitcoin increased to $10000 AUD. Alice then sold 0.5BTC in December 2017 at a price of $10000 per BTC. Therefore the total amount gained from the sale was $5000. It is at this point in time that a CGT event is generated. Alice must now calucalte the profit for this CGT event so that she may declare it on her 2017/2018 tax return (As this is financial year that the CGT event occured). The first step is to calculate the cost base for the 0.5BTC that was sold. In our example this is easy, Alice originally paid $6000 for 1BTC, which gives us a cost base of $3000 for 0.5BTC. The amount Alice received from sale of the 0.5BTC was $5000, so she subtracts the cost base from the sale price ($5000 - $3000) which leaves her with $2000 profit. This is the amount that Alice will record on her 2017/2018 tax return as a Capital Gain.
There are a number of other considerations to make when calculating profit for a CGT event.
The ATO offer individuals a 50% discount on capital gains when the disposed asset has been held for a period of time that exceeds 12 months. The way to make this calculation is as follows; Subtract the cost base from the capital proceeds, deduct any capital losses, then reduce by the relevant discount percentage. (50% for individuals). So in our above example, Alice will only be taxed on a $1000 capital gain had she held the Bitcoin for > 12 months. . Alice would still need to declare the full capital gain on her tax return, but she would select the 'discount' method when performing the calculation. .
Any incidental costs associated with purchasing, holding, moving, and/or disposing of an asset may also be deducted from the capital proceeds prior to calculating the capital gain. The ATO provide the following example  The following example (with values inserted) illustrates how to calculate a capital gain: Capital proceeds (sale price) $10,210 Less Cost base:
Purchase price $6,000
Incidental costs of purchase (Brokerage fee and GST) $100
Incidental costs of sale (Brokerage fees and GST) $110 $6,210
Capital gain $4,000 Further details for calculating the cost base, and reduced cost base of an asset can be found here.
Any capital losses may be carried forward from previous tax years and used to offset capital gains (if any) in the current tax year. 
It's important to note that losses are applied to any gains before applying the CGT discount. So if you have a carried forward loss of $1,000 and make a gain eligible for the discount of $2,000, your net gain is ($2,000 - $1,000) * 50% = $500.
Bitcoin as a personal use asset
Where you use bitcoin to purchase goods or services for personal use or consumption, any capital gain or loss from disposal of the bitcoin will be disregarded (as a personal use asset) provided the cost of the bitcoin is $10,000 or less.  Personal use assets are CGT assets, other than collectables, used or kept mainly for the personal use or enjoyment of you or your associates.  Personal use assets include:
Bitcoin that is kept or used mainly to make purchases of items for personal use or consumption ordinarily will be kept or used mainly for personal use. Bitcoin that is kept or used mainly for the purpose of profit-making or investment, or to facilitate purchases or sales in the course of carrying on business is not used or kept mainly for personal use.  The ATO have released a Ruling Compendium to accompany TD2014/25EC. One section of this compendium provides clarification on when bitcoin will be a personal use asset. (Item 10) Item 10 section 1 states the following: A taxpayer who purchases bitcoin with the intention of holding onto them for a number of years so that they appreciate in value and the profit can be spent in their retirement, is using the bitcoin for investment or profit making purposes and the bitcoin is not a personal use asset. Further, Item 11 section 3 states the following: All of the facts and circumstances regarding the acquisition, use and disposal of the bitcoin are relevant to determining whether the bitcoin are a personal use asset. I urge everyone to read the Compendium, specifically items 10 and 11. These clarifications mean that bitcoin cannot be disposed of as a 'personal use asset' if they were bought or held with the intention of making a profit.
Transacting with bitcoin is akin to a barter arrangement.  In its simplest form, bartering involves the direct exchange of goods or services for other goods or services without reference to money or a money value.  Early we discussed the fact that Bitcoin and other crypto-currencies are treated and assets, and not currencies. What this means is that whenever you acquire crypto-currency, you are acquiring an asset. This means that trading crypto pairs is essentially a barter arrangement involving the disposal of one asset and an acquisition of a different asset. By definition, this means that you generate a CGT event each and every time you trade a crypto pair. The ATO law regarding barter arrangements tells us that you must assign an AUD value to the disposed asset as well as the acquired asset at the time of the trade. You must then calculate your capital gain or loss using these values. As a general rule when valuing the consideration arising from barter or countertrade transactions, the ATO will accept a fair market value as adequately reflecting the money value or arm's length value, as applicable. In most cases, the ATO will accept as a fair market value, the cash price which the taxpayer would normally have charged a stranger for the services or for the sale of the goods or property. 
Bitcoin as the Ultimate Haven from Hyperinflation: A Country By Country Analysis Of Worldwide Fiat Currency Inflation
https://cryptoiq.co/bitcoin-as-the-ultimate-haven-from-hyperinflation-a-country-by-country-analysis-of-worldwide-fiat-currency-inflation/ Bitcoin was created during the Great Recession that started in 2008, when the governments of the world printed trillions of dollars to bail out banks and corporations. Satoshi Nakamoto intended Bitcoin to be a decentralized form of money that could not be printed by governments at will. In the the Genesis Block Satoshi included the message “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks.” Fiat currencies continue to be the dominant form of global currency, but it seems logical that, if fiat currencies were to hyperinflate and collapse, Bitcoin would become the dominant global currency. This is because Bitcoin can be sent instantly anywhere in the world and is cryptographically secure. It is easy enough to integrate Bitcoin into any e-commerce store or physical store, and the customers of the future will be able to send Bitcoin from their smartphones via QR codes. Therefore, if fiat currency becomes obsolete, Bitcoin could seamlessly take its place and keep the global economy running. There has been plenty of hype that fiat currencies are collapsing, but this article will explore the current state of major fiat currencies in the world to ascertain the true situation. This is important information since the rate of fiat currency inflation by country is an important factor that will determine Bitcoin adoption rates and ultimately Bitcoin’s price. United States’ Inflation Rate The United States is perhaps the best place to start an analysis of global fiat inflation, since the USD is the world’s dominant fiat currency and perhaps the most stable long term. That being said, there is 2-3 percent annual inflation in the United States. If we split the difference at a 2.5 percent annual inflation rate, it means $100,000 stored in a bank will lose a whopping $22,400 of value over the course of 10 years, corresponding to 22.4 percent inflation per 10 years. Therefore, even in the United States, saving money long term seems impractical, and this essentially forces people to risk their savings by investing in the hopes that the money earned from investing will outpace inflation. It appears inflation will only worsen in the United States since the national debt is approaching $22 trillion, with a budget deficit of $1 trillion per year and growing. This situation will likely lead to increased money printing, which would increase the inflation rate. Therefore, saving money in USD long term does not make financial sense. Bitcoin is an alternative way to store money long term, although Bitcoin has yet to mature and can be extremely volatile from year to year. Euro (EUR) Inflation Rate Is 37.5 percent Relative To USD During The Last 10 Years One of the primary global currencies besides the USD is the Euro (EUR). For the rest of this global analysis, fiat currencies will be compared to the USD exchange rate to determine inflation, but it must be kept in mind that the USD itself is inflating at the rate of 2 to 3 percent per year. When the EUR launched in 1999, the exchange rate was one USD per 0.85 EUR. By 2002 the EUR weakened to 1.16 EUR per USD. The EUR then entered a period of vigorous strengthening, and the exchange rate fell to 0.64 EUR per USD by 2008. The Great Recession caused the EUR to begin weakening versus the USD long term, and currently each USD is worth 0.88 EUR. This represents 37.5 percent inflation relative to the USD in roughly 10 years. Back to the storing money in a bank analogy, $100,000 of EUR stored over the past 10 years would have lost the EUR inflation rate + the USD inflation rate. With this sort of inflation rate it seems dangerous to store money in EUR long term. It gets worse. The EUR is one of the top global fiat currencies, and there are many currencies doing worse than the EUR. United Kingdom’s Pound Has 65 Percent Inflation Relative to USD in 11 Years The United Kingdom (UK) is one of nine European Union (EU) countries that does not use the EUR, and eventually, the UK will leave the EU via the Brexit. However, the native Great Britain Pound (GBP) has done far worse than the Euro, with the exchange rate going from 0.48 GBP per USD in 2007 to 0.79 GBP per USD currently. This is 65 percent inflation relative to the USD during the past 11 years. Canada’s Inflation Rate Is 45.2 Percent Relative to USD During the Last 7 Years The United States’ neighbor to the north is similar to the United States in many respects. It is a fully developed and industrialized first world country. However the native fiat currency, the Canadian Dollar (CAD), has been experiencing severe inflation since the Great Recession. In 2011 1 USD was worth 0.95 CAD, and now the exchange rate is 1.36 CAD per USD. This represents 43.2 percent inflation relative to the USD since 2011, and of course, the USD has an underlying inflation rate as well of 16.2 percent during the last 7 years. Even in the first world country of Canada, it is becoming impossible to save cash for retirement or even for short-term goals like buying a house, forcing people to invest in the risky stock market. Mexico’s Inflation Rate Is 97.6 Percent Relative to the USD During Past 10 Years Since the 2008 financial crisis, the exchange rate of the Mexican Peso (MXN) has gone from 10.12 MXN per USD to 20 MXN per USD. This represents 97.6 percent inflation relative to the USD, and USD inflation means the true Mexican inflation rate is well over 100 percent per 10 years. This sort of inflation rate ensures that people have to work their entire lives and can never retire, and overall, this sort of inflation can cause the entire economy of Mexico to struggle. Bitcoin seems like an obvious alternative to holding MXN long term. It is quite shocking that a country bordering the United States has such high inflation, yet the mainstream media never mentions it. Russia Has 194 Percent Inflation Relative to USD Since the 2008 Great Recession Russia is a global superpower, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $1.58 trillion versus the United States’ $19.39 trillion GDP. Despite being a superpower, the native currency of Russia, the Russian Ruble (RUB), has gone from 23.48 RUB per USD in 2008 to 69.08 RUB per USD currently. This yields a 194 percent 10 year inflation rate relative to the USD. Clearly, the Great Recession that started in 2008 is a common point when fiat inflation accelerated in many countries around the world. Japan’s Inflation Rate Is 46 Percent Relative to USD Over the Past 7 Years Japan is a first-world country and has one of the most important stock markets in the world. The GDP of Japan is ranked number three in the world at nearly $5 trillion. However, its inflation rate is far higher than the United States, at least since 2011. In 2011, the exchange rate was 76 JPY per USD, but it has now risen to 111 JPY per USD, a 46 percent inflation rate relative to the USD over the past 7 years. This is actually almost exactly the same as Canada’s inflation rate. China’s Inflation Is Only 14.4 Percent Relative to USD Since 2013, but China Tightly Controls the CNY China is the second ranking economy in the world with a $12 trillion GDP. Its position as the number one trading partner of the United States gives it power to manipulate the exchange rate of its native currency the Chinese Yuan (CNY). The CNY actually strengthened greatly versus the USD until 2013, when China relaxed its control over the CNY exchange rate to make it more competitive in the global import and export markets. Chinese control over the CNY and therefore, control over the profitability of Chinese imports, is a primary reason for the “trade war” between China and the United States. Since allowing the CNY to lose value relative to the USD, the exchange rate has gone from 6.04 CNY per USD in 2013 to 6.91 CNY per USD currently, a 14.4 percent inflation relative to the USD in 5 years. China is an outlier and has one of the lowest inflation rates relative to the USD. Switzerland Has One Of The Lowest Inflation Rates At Less Than 5 percent Relative To The USD In 7 Years Switzerland has remained independent of the European Union and does not use the EUR. Instead, it uses the Swiss Franc (CHF). The CHF actually strengthened greatly relative to the USD during the Great Recession, but the trend reversed in 2011. There was a rapid devaluation of the CHF relative to the USD from 0.76 CHF per USD to 0.94 CHF per USD during 2011. In The 7 years since then, the CHF has roughly five percent inflation relative to the USD and sits at 0.99 CHF per USD currently. That being said, it cannot be forgotten that the USD itself is experiencing 2.5 percent inflation per year, so even countries that have low inflation rates relative to the USD have a significant inflation rate overall. India Has Seen 79 Percent Inflation Relative to USD Since the Great Recession Began India has the sixth highest GDP in the world at $2.6 trillion, and the second highest population at 1.34 billion. Since the Great Recession began, the Indian Rupee (INR) has gone from 39.18 per USD to 70.14 INR per USD, a 79 percent inflation relative to the USD in 11 years. Unfortunately, India is slowly making Bitcoin more illegal and could fully outlaw it, so citizens may have to break the law in the future in the event that inflation accelerates and Bitcoin becomes a preferred way to store money. Indonesia Has 76 Percent Inflation Relative to the USD in Seven Years Indonesia has a population of 265 million, not far behind the United States, but its GDP is 20 times less than the United States at $1 trillion. Part of the reason Indonesia’s economy is weaker may be that the native fiat currency, the Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) has gone from 8,250 per USD in 2011 to 14,550 IDR per USD currently. This is 76 percent inflation relative to the USD in 7 years, around the same rate as India. However, Indonesia has banned Bitcoin as of 2018, which would make it difficult for citizens to use Bitcoin in the event inflation spirals out of control. Brazil Has 152 percent Inflation Relative To USD In Past Seven Years, Despite Being the Strongest Economy In South America Brazil has the most powerful economy in South America with a $2 trillion GDP. However, South America as a whole is experiencing out of control hyperinflation, and Brazil seems to be feeling the effects. The Brazilian Real (BRL) has gone from 1.55 per USD in 2011 to 3.91 BRL per USD currently. This is 152 percent inflation relative to the USD in 7 years. There does not appear to be any inflation safe haven in South America, and this could make South America a Bitcoin adoption hotspot. Venezuela Has Ridiculous Inflation Around One million percent Per Year; Bolivar Collapsing The end game of fiat currency inflation, if left unchecked, is currency collapse. A classic example of currency collapse is the situation in Venezuela, where the Cafe Con Leche Index suggests 400,000 percent inflation per year, although if a shorter term average is used it is 1 million percent per year or more. It would be shocking if the native fiat currency of Venezuela, the Sovereign Bolivar (VES), is still usable one year from now. Bitcoin is legal in Venezuela, and there is plenty of news which indicates people are abandoning the VES for Bitcoin. South Korea Has Zero Inflation Relative to the USD South Korea is considered a powerful economy relative to most of the world, with a GDP of $1.5 trillion despite the country’s small size. The South Korean Won (SKW) has essentially zero inflation relative to the USD long term aside from an exchange rate shock during the 2008 Great Recession. That being said, inflation is still a reality in South Korea since the USD has average inflation of 2.5 percent per year. Australia Has 53 Percent Inflation Relative to the USD in Seven Years Australia essentially has a continent to itself, but it is not isolated from the global fiat inflation crisis. The AUD actually strengthened massively versus the USD from 2001 to 2011. However, the trend reversed, and the exchange rate has gone from 0.93 AUD per USD in 2011 to 1.42 AUD per USD currently. This is 53 percent inflation relative to the USD in seven years. Israel Has Zero Inflation Relative To USD Long Term Israel is in the Middle East but does not have strong connections to the economy of the rest of the Middle East and, apparently, a different monetary policy than most of the rest of the world. Israel is only comparable to the United States, South Korea, and perhaps Switzerland when it comes to fiat currency since the Israeli New Shekel (ILS) has practically zero inflation relative to the USD long term although there are shorter term oscillations. Like the other countries listed with zero USD relative inflation, inflation still exists because the USD itself is inflating. In total, there are 180 fiat currencies in the world, and here, we’re covering just 16 of them. We could keep going, but the trend is already clear. Even in major countries with powerful economies, inflation has become a serious issue, with some major countries experiencing 50-200 percent inflation relative to the USD over the past decade, and those numbers don’t even take in the 2.5 percent per year USD inflation underlying them. It is possible that worldwide fiat inflation will accelerate due to the growing global debt crisis. That’s especially true if an economic recession occurs since that would force a rapid increase in money printing. So we’re in a global situation that needs to be actively monitored. Even if the status quo is maintained long term, most of the world’s population cannot realistically save money for the future because it’s going to lose value over time. This is a major shift from our parents’ generation when saving money was the smart thing to do. The good news is Bitcoin is waiting on the sidelines. It’s ready to become the global currency if fiat currency collapses worldwide. Even if fiat does not totally collapse, perhaps once Bitcoin matures and becomes more stable, it will be a good option for saving money long term since its value is independent of fiat inflation.
An extensive list of blockchain courses, resources and articles to help you get a job working with blockchain.
u/Maximus_no and me spent some time at work collecting and analyzing learning material for blockchain development. The list contains resources for developers, as well as business analysts/consultants looking to learn more about blockchain use-cases and solutions.
Certifications and Courses
IIB Council Link to course: IIB council : Certified Blockchain Professional C|BP is an In-Depth, Industry Agnostic, Hands-On Training and Certification Course specifically tailored for Industry Professionals and Developers interested in implementing emerging technologies in the Data-Driven Markets and Digitized Economies. The IIB Council Certified Blockchain Professional (C|BP) Course was developed to help respective aspiring professionals gain excessive knowledge in Blockchain technology and its implication on businesses. WHO IS IT FOR:
C|BP is developed in line with the latest industry trends to help current and aspiring Professionals evolve in their career by implementing the latest knowledge in blockchain technology. This course will help professionals understand the foundation of Blockchain technology and the opportunities this emerging technology is offering.
If you are a Developer and you are willing to learn blockchain technology this course is for you. You will learn to build and model Blockchain solutions and Blockchain-based applications for enterprises and businesses in multiple Blockchain Technologies.
This exam is designed for non-technical business professionals who require basic knowledge about Blockchain and how it will be executed within an organization. This exam is NOT appropriate for technology professionals seeking to gain deeper understanding of Blockchain technology implementation or programming.
A person who holds this certification demonstrates their knowledge of:
· What is Blockchain? (What exactly is it?) · Non-Technical Technology Overview (How does it work?) · Benefits of Blockchain (Why should anyone consider this?) · Use Cases (Where and for what apps is it appropriate?) · Adoption (Who is using it and for what?) · Future of Blockchain (What is the future?)
A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:
· Architect blockchain solutions · Work effectively with blockchain engineers and technical leaders · Choose appropriate blockchain systems for various use cases · Work effectively with both public and permissioned blockchain systems
This exam will prove that a student completely understands:
· The difference between proof of work, proof of stake, and other proof systems and why they exist · Why cryptocurrency is needed on certain types of blockchains · The difference between public, private, and permissioned blockchains · How blocks are written to the blockchain · Where cryptography fits into blockchain and the most commonly used systems · Common use cases for public blockchains · Common use cases for private & permissioned blockchains · What is needed to launch your own blockchain · Common problems & considerations in working with public blockchains · Awareness of the tech behind common blockchains · When is mining needed and when it is not · Byzantine Fault Tolerance · Consensus among blockchains · What is hashing · How addresses, public keys, and private keys work · What is a smart contract · Security in blockchain · Brief history of blockchain · The programming languages of the most common blockchains · Common testing and deployment practices for blockchains and blockchain-based apps
A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:
· Plan and prepare production ready applications for the Ethereum blockchain · Write, test, and deploy secure Solidity smart contracts · Understand and work with Ethereum fees · Work within the bounds and limitations of the Ethereum blockchain · Use the essential tooling and systems needed to work with the Ethereum ecosystem
This exam will prove that a student completely understands how to:
· Implement web3.js · Write and compile Solidity smart contracts · Create secure smart contracts · Deploy smart contracts both the live and test Ethereum networks · Calculate Ethereum gas costs · Unit test smart contracts · Run an Ethereum node on development machines
Basic course with focus on Bitcoin. After this course, you’ll know everything you need to be able to separate fact from fiction when reading claims about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. You’ll have the conceptual foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network. And you’ll be able to integrate ideas from Bitcoin in your own projects.
· A mid / basic understanding of blockchain technology and its long-term implications for business, coupled with knowledge of its relationship to other emerging technologies such as AI and IoT · An economic framework for identifying blockchain-based solutions to challenges within your own context, guided by the knowledge of cryptoeconomics expert Christian Catalini · Recognition of your newfound blockchain knowledge in the form of a certificate of completion from the MIT Sloan School of Management — one of the world’s leading business schools Orientation Module: Welcome to Your Online Campus Module 1: An introduction to blockchain technology Module 2: Bitcoin and the curse of the double-spending problem Module 3: Costless verification: Blockchain technology and the last mile problem Module 4: Bootstrapping network effects through blockchain technology and cryptoeconomics Module 5: Using tokens to design new types of digital platforms Module 6: The future of blockchain technology, AI, and digital privacy
· A mid / basic understanding of what blockchain is and how it works, as well as insights into how it will affect the future of industry and of your organization. · The ability to make better strategic business decisions by utilizing the Oxford Blockchain Strategic framework, the Oxford Blockchain Regulation framework, the Oxford Blockchain Ecosystem map, and drawing on your knowledge of blockchain and affiliated industries and technologies. · A certificate of attendance from Oxford Saïd as validation of your newfound blockchain knowledge and skills, as well as access to a global network of like-minded business leaders and innovators. Module 1: Understanding blockchain Module 2: The blockchain ecosystem Module 3: Innovations in value transfer Module 4: Decentralized apps and smart contracts Module 5: Transforming enterprise business models Module 6: Blockchain frontiers
[Proof of Work] - very short, cuz it's well-known.  Bitcoin - to generate a new block miner must generate hash of the new block header that is in line with given requirements. Others: Ethereum, Litecoin etc. [Hybrid of PoW and PoS]  Decred - hybrid of “proof of work” and “proof of stake”. Blocks are created about every 5 minutes. Nodes in the network looking for a solution with a known difficulty to create a block (PoW). Once the solution is found it is broadcast to the network. The network then verifies the solution. Stakeholders who have locked some DCR in return for a ticket* now have the chance to vote on the block (PoS). 5 tickets are chosen pseudo-randomly from the ticket pool and if at least 3 of 5 vote ‘yes’ the block is permanently added to the blockchain. Both miners and voters are compensated with DCR : PoS - 30% and PoW - 60% of about 30 new Decred issued with a block. * 1 ticket = ability to cast 1 vote. Stakeholders must wait an average of 28 days (8,192 blocks) to vote their tickets. [Proof of Stake]  Nxt - The more tokens are held by account, the greater chance that account will earn the right to generate a block. The total reward received as a result of block generation is the sum of the transaction fees located within the block. Three values are key to determining which account is eligible to generate a block, which account earns the right to generate a block, and which block is taken to be the authoritative one in times of conflict: base target value, target value and cumulative difficulty. Each block on the chain has a generation signature parameter. To participate in the block's forging process, an active account digitally signs the generation signature of the previous block with its own public key. This creates a 64-byte signature, which is then hashed using SHA256. The first 8 bytes of the resulting hash are converted to a number, referred to as the account hit. The hit is compared to the current target value(active balance). If the computed hit is lower than the target, then the next block can be generated.  Peercoin (chain-based proof of stake) - coin age parameter. Hybrid PoW and PoS algorithm. The longer your Peercoins have been stationary in your account (to a maximum of 90 days), the more power (coin age) they have to mint a block. The act of minting a block requires the consumption of coin age value, and the network determines consensus by selecting the chain with the largest total consumed coin age. Reward - minting + 1% yearly.  Reddcoin (Proof of stake Velocity) - quite similar to Peercoin, difference: not linear coin-aging function (new coins gain weight quickly, and old coins gain weight increasingly slowly) to encourage Nodes Activity. Node with most coin age weight have a bigger chance to create block. To create block Node should calculate right hash. Block reward - interest on the weighted age of coins/ 5% annual interest in PoSV phase.  Ethereum (Casper) - uses modified BFT consensus. Blocks will be created using PoW. In the Casper Phase 1 implementation for Ethereum, the “proposal mechanism" is the existing proof of work chain, modified to have a greatly reduced block reward. Blocks will be validated by set of Validators. Block is finalised when 2/3 of validators voted for it (not the number of validators is counted, but their deposit size). Block creator rewarded with Block Reward + Transaction FEES.  Lisk (Delegated Proof-of-stake) - Lisk stakeholders vote with vote transaction (the weight of the vote depends on the amount of Lisk the stakeholder possess) and choose 101 Delegates, who create all blocks in the blockchain. One delegate creates 1 block within 1 round (1 round contains 101 blocks) -> At the beginning of each round, each delegate is assigned a slot indicating their position in the block generation process -> Delegate includes up to 25 transactions into the block, signs it and broadcasts it to the network -> As >51% of available peers agreed that this block is acceptable to be created (Broadhash consensus), a new block is added to the blockchain. *Any account may become a delegate, but only accounts with the required stake (no info how much) are allowed to generate blocks. Block reward - minted Lisks and transaction fees (fees for all 101 blocks are collected firstly and then are divided between delegates). Blocks appears every 10 sec.  Cardano (Ouroboros Proof of Stake) - Blocks(slots) are created by Slot Leaders. Slot Leaders for N Epoch are chosen during n-1 Epoch. Slot Leaders are elected from the group of ADA stakeholders who have enough stake. Election process consist of 3 phases: Commitment phase: each elector generates a random value (secret), signs it and commit as message to network (other electors) saved in to block. -> Reveal phase: Each elector sends special value to open a commitment, all this values (opening) are put into the block. -> Recovery phase: each elector verifies that commitments and openings match and extracts the secrets and forms a SEED (randomly generated bytes string based on secrets). All electors get the same SEED. -> Follow the Satoshi algorithm : Elector who have coin which corresponded to SEED become a SLOT LEADER and get a right to create a block. Slot Leader is rewarded with minted ADA and transactions Fee.  Tezos (Proof Of Stake) - generic and self-amending crypto-ledger. At the beginning of each cycle (2048 blocks), a random seed is derived from numbers that block miners chose and committed to in the penultimate cycle, and revealed in the last. -> Using this random seed, a follow the coin strategy (similar to Follow The Satoshi) is used to allocate mining rights and signing rights to stakeholders for the next cycle*. -> Blocks are mined by a random stakeholder (the miner) and includes multiple signatures of the previous block provided by random stakeholders (the signers). Mining and signing both offer a small reward but also require making a one cycle safety deposit to be forfeited in the event of a double mining or double signing. · the more coins (rolls) you have - the more your chance to be a minesigner.  Tendermint (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - A proposal is signed and published by the designated proposer at each round. The proposer is chosen by a deterministic and non-choking round robin selection algorithm that selects proposers in proportion to their voting power. The proposer create the block, that should be validated by >2/3 of Validators, as follow: Propose -> Prevote -> Precommit -> Commit. Proposer rewarded with Transaction FEES.  Tron (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - This blockhain is still on development stage. Consensus algorithm = PoS + BFT (similar to Tendermint): PoS algorithm chooses a node as Proposer, this node has the power to generate a block. -> Proposer broadcasts a block that it want to release. -> Block enters the Prevote stage. It takes >2/3 of nodes' confirmations to enter the next stage. -> As the block is prevoted, it enters Precommit stage and needs >2/3 of node's confirmation to go further. -> As >2/3 of nodes have precommited the block it's commited to the blockchain with height +1. New blocks appears every 15 sec.  NEO (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - Consensus nodes* are elected by NEO holders -> The Speaker is identified (based on algorithm) -> He broadcasts proposal to create block -> Each Delegate (other consensus nodes) validates proposal -> Each Delegate sends response to other Delegates -> Delegate reaches consensus after receiving 2/3 positive responses -> Each Delegate signs the block and publishes it-> Each Delegate receives a full block. Block reward 6 GAS distributed proportionally in accordance with the NEO holding ratio among NEO holders. Speaker rewarded with transaction fees (mostly 0). * Stake 1000 GAS to nominate yourself for Bookkeeping(Consensus Node)  EOS (Delegated Proof of Stake) - those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select* block producers through a continuous approval voting system and anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks proportional to the total votes they have received relative to all other producers. At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen. The top 20 by total approval are automatically chosen every round and the last producer is chosen proportional to their number of votes relative to other producers. Block should be confirmed by 2/3 or more of elected Block producers. Block Producer rewarded with Block rewards. *the more EOS tokens a stakeholder owns, the greater their voting power [The XRP Ledger Consensus Process]  Ripple - Each node receives transaction from external applications -> Each Node forms public list of all valid (not included into last ledger (=block)) transactions aka (Candidate Set) -> Nodes merge its candidate set with UNLs(Unique Node List) candidate sets and vote on the veracity of all transactions (1st round of consensus) -> all transactions that received at least 50% votes are passed on the next round (many rounds may take place) -> final round of consensus requires that min 80% of Nodes UNL agreeing on transactions. It means that at least 80% of Validating nodes should have same Candidate SET of transactions -> after that each Validating node computes a new ledger (=block) with all transactions (with 80% UNL agreement) and calculate ledger hash, signs and broadcasts -> All Validating nodes compare their ledgers hash -> Nodes of the network recognize a ledger instance as validated when a 80% of the peers have signed and broadcast the same validation hash. -> Process repeats. Ledger creation process lasts 5 sec(?). Each transaction includes transaction fee (min 0,00001 XRP) which is destroyed. No block rewards. [The Stellar consensus protocol]  Stellar (Federated Byzantine Agreement) - quite similar to Ripple. Key difference - quorum slice. [Proof of Burn]  Slimcoin - to get the right to write blocks Node should “burn” amount of coins. The more coins Node “burns” more chances it has to create blocks (for long period) -> Nodes address gets a score called Effective Burnt Coins that determines chance to find blocks. Block creator rewarded with block rewards. [Proof of Importance]  NEM - Only accounts that have min 10k vested coins are eligible to harvest (create a block). Accounts with higher importance scores have higher probabilities of harvesting a block. The higher amount of vested coins, the higher the account’s Importance score. And the higher amount of transactions that satisfy following conditions: - transactions sum min 1k coins, - transactions made within last 30 days, - recipient have 10k vested coins too, - the higher account’s Important score. Harvester is rewarded with fees for the transactions in the block. A new block is created approx. every 65 sec. [Proof of Devotion]  Nebulas (Proof of Devotion + BFT) - quite similar to POI, the PoD selects the accounts with high influence. All accounts are ranked according to their liquidity and propagation (Nebulas Rank) -> Top-ranked accounts are selected -> Chosen accounts pay deposit and are qualified as the blocks Validators* -> Algorithm pseudo-randomly chooses block Proposer -> After a new block is proposed, Validators Set (each Validator is charged a deposit) participate in a round of BFT-Style voting to verify block (1. Prepare stage -> 2. Commit Stage. Validators should have > 2/3 of total deposits to validate Block) -> Block is added. Block rewards : each Validator rewarded with 1 NAS. *Validators Set is dynamic, changes in Set may occur after Epoch change. [IOTA Algorithm]  IOTA - uses DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) instead of blockchain (TANGLE equal to Ledger). Graph consist of transactions (not blocks). To issue a new transaction Node must approve 2 random other Transactions (not confirmed). Each transaction should be validate n(?) times. By validating PAST(2) transactions whole Network achieves Consensus. in Order to issue transaction Node: 1. Sign transaction with private key 2. choose two other Transactions to validate based on MCMC(Markov chain Monte Carlo) algorithm, check if 2 transactions are valid (node will never approve conflicting transactions) 3. make some PoW(similar to HashCash). -> New Transaction broadcasted to Network. Node don’t receive reward or fee. [PBFT + PoW]  Yobicash - uses PBFT and also PoW. Nodes reach consensus on transactions by querying other nodes. A node asks its peers about the state of a transaction: if it is known or not, and if it is a doublespending transaction or not. As follow : Node receives new transaction -> Checks if valid -> queries all known nodes for missing transactions (check if already in DAG ) -> queries 2/3 nodes for doublepsending and possibility -> if everything is ok add to DAG. Reward - nodes receive transaction fees + minting coins. [Proof of Space/Proof of Capacity]  Filecoin (Power Fault Tolerance) - the probability that the network elects a miner(Leader) to create a new block (it is referred to as the voting power of the miner) is proportional to storage currently in use in relation to the rest of the network. Each node has Power - storage in use verified with Proof of Spacetime by nodes. Leaders extend the chain by creating a block and propagating it to the network. There can be an empty block (when no leader). A block is committed if the majority of the participants add their weight on the chain where the block belongs to, by extending the chain or by signing blocks. Block creator rewarded with Block reward + transaction fees. [Proof of Elapsed Time (POET)]  Hyperledger Sawtooth - Goal - to solve BFT Validating Nodes limitation. Works only with intel’s SGX. PoET uses a random leader election model or a lottery based election model based on SGX, where the protocol randomly selects the next leader to finalize the block. Every validator requests a wait time from an enclave (a trusted function). -> The validator with the shortest wait time for a particular transaction block is elected the leader. -> The BlockPublisher is responsible for creating candidate blocks to extend the current chain. He takes direction from the consensus algorithm for when to create a block and when to publish a block. He creates, Finalizes, Signs Block and broadcast it -> Block Validators check block -> Block is created on top of blockchain.  Byteball (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - only verified nodes are allowed to be Validation nodes (list of requirements https://github.com/byteball/byteball-witness). Users choose in transaction set of 12 Validating nodes. Validating nodes(Witnesses) receive transaction fees.  Nano - uses DAG, PoW (HashCash). Nano uses a block-lattice structure. Each account has its own blockchain (account-chain) equivalent to the account’s transaction/balance history. To add transaction user should make some HashCash PoW -> When user creates transaction Send Block appears on his blockchain and Receive block appears on Recipients blockchain. -> Peers in View receive Block -> Peers verify block (Double spending and check if already in the ledger) -> Peers achieve consensus and add block. In case of Fork (when 2 or more signed blocks reference the same previous block): Nano network resolves forks via a balance-weighted voting system where representative nodes vote for the block they observe, as >50% of weighted votes received, consensus achieved and block is retained in the Node’s ledger (block that lose the vote is discarded).  Holochain - uses distributed hash table (DHT). Instead of trying to manage global consensus for every change to a huge blockchain ledger, every participant has their own signed hash chain. In case of multi-party transaction, it is signed to each party's chain. Each party signs the exact same transaction with links to each of their previous chain entries. After data is signed to local chains, it is shared to a DHT where every neighbor node validate it. Any consensus algorithms can be built on top of Holochain.  Komodo ('Delegated' Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)) - end-to-end blockchain solutions. DPoW consensus mechanism does not recognize The Longest Chain Rule to resolve a conflict in the network, instead the dPoW looks to backups it inserted previously into the chosen PoW blockchain. The process of inserting backups of Komodo transactions into a secure PoW is “notarization.” Notarisation is performed by the elected Notary nodes. Roughly every ten minutes, the Notary nodes perform a special block hash mined on the Komodo blockchain and take note of the overall Komodo blockchain “height”. The notary nodes process this specifc block so that their signatures are cryptographically included within the content of the notarized data. There are sixty-four “Notary nodes” elected by a stake-weighted vote, where ownership of KMD represents stake in the election. They are a special type of blockchain miner, having certain features in their underlying code that enable them to maintain an effective and cost-efcient blockchain and they periodically receives the privilege to mine a block on “easy difculty.” Source: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoTechnology/comments/7znnq8/my_brief_observation_of_most_common_consensus/ Whitepapers Worth Looking Into: IOTA -http://iotatoken.com/IOTA_Whitepaper.pdf NANO -https://nano.org/en/whitepaper Bitcoin -https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf Ethereum: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper Ethereum Plasma (Omise-GO) -https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf Cardano - https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf
Crypto and Tax Australia - Date: 26 March 2018 I was sent this by the tax office: We have just updated our website and cemented our position on cryptocurrencies. For more information see Tax treatment of cryptocurrencies or go to ato.gov.au and search for QC 42159. Capital Gains Tax When does it apply? Currently individual Cryptocurrencies are a Capital Gains Tax (CGT) Asset.. When you sell or otherwise dispose of an asset it's called a capital gains tax (CGT) event. This is the point at which you make a capital gain or loss. Therefore, a CGT event applies each time crypto currencies are traded (sold or converted) - whether they are traded for another currency or cashed out. - regardless if there is no exchange of funds (AUD$). For every capital gains tax (CGT) event that happens to your assets during the year, you need to work out your capital gain or loss. If you have both capital gains and capital losses, you also have to work out your net capital gain or net capital loss for the year. When working out your capital gains or losses, include the transaction conversion in Australian dollars at the time of trading on your spreadsheet. How do you record Capital gains or losses to your Income tax return? At the end of the financial year your capital gains can be reduced by the capital losses. This is then added to your income. Capital Gains and or losses are recorded in your income tax return, under the Capital Gains section. Capital gains discount Capital gain can be reduced by 50% for individuals if held for 12 months or more. For information see Capital gains tax or go to ato.gov.au and search for QC 22147 ———————————————————— What I have learnt about ATO laws and crypto in Australia in my own words: Ok- so I have now had about 2 hours discussion with the Tax Office and want to outline what I have learnt - for good and bad. If you want to be legal this is what you have to do. I submitted these points to a tax office rep. who verified they are correct as at 26th March 2018.
Every single sale is a taxable event- that means coin to coin and coin to AUD - every single one! That is a shock to most of us - but unfortunately true.
Every time you make a gain you have to record it and it is a taxable event. EG- you buy ETH with AUD- then buy NEO - if this took 1 hr and in that time ETH went up by $10 before u bought the NEO you just made $10 taxable dollars on the ETH as u buy the NEO!
The tax office does not concern itself with what we call "profit," that our folio app may show, it is concerned with net gain or losses on individual transactions.
So EVERY transaction (buy and sell) has to be logged with the corresponding AUD value so gains and losses can be determined.
Blockfolio app is perfectly set up for tracking all of this - If you diligently add each transaction accurately, it will log the info you need in AUD. You can look at a purchase price for a coin in AUD - the sell value in AUD and determine gain or loss on each sale- and log it.
I am also using a second ledger in an excel doc. as another record in case the app dies for whatever reason. I will transfer the details from blockfolio into this file on each transaction.
The tracking headers for the excel doc would be something like:
Coin Date Amount AUD buy AUD Sell Profit or loss:
If you sell a coin at a loss- it comes off your taxable total at end June 30- as do all your fees and other expenses- eg's a Ledger, PC, ISP fees, backup HDD, etc (some may have to be depreciated over a few years).
Some good news is that if you sell an alt coin into BTC or ETH at a profit (attracting CGT) and then into AUD, (it will be approx. the same value if done quickly), the change into AUD is also potentially taxable but there will usually be next to no change in value- if done quickly. You can thus cash out and not have to use something like USD Tether and rebuy whenever you like. The CGT will have applied to the gain as you exited crypto into AUD via ETH or BTC.
Turning crypto into AUD is not the crux of what attracts CGT- it is every single coin or cash exchange that results in a gain or loss.
Coins you bought at any given time do not attract CGT as they appreciate- only when you sell them. So if you made 500% gains in your portfolio no CGT is attracted until you sell for another coin or AUD.
CGT gains are added to your personal income- so most will be in higher tax brackets.
There is no $10,000 "get out of CGT" clause that applies to crypto.
If you have a partner in life, and purchase crypto currency with joint funds, you have to share the CGT across both of your tax returns. It can be a nominated percentage for this Join Tenant arrangement, but you must be consistent. The percentage you choose at your first return (EG 60/40%) has to be maintained for the entire time you are into crypto.
The tax office has developed and is improving on a tool to help you work out your CGT obligations- it isn't mandatory you use it and should be able to be found on the ATO website.
Coins bought and held for 12 months attract the benefit of a 50% discount in CGT. This applies to specific coins and not "your crypto in general" It does not mean you can buy and sell crypto all year and then turn it into AUD after a year and pay tax on your profit that you cash out.
———————— This process is complex for crypto investors- especially if you are an active day or swing trader- To be compliant with Australian Tax law this is how to do it. Essentially, it is fair as losses and costs are deducted from profit. This process gets hard for crypto traders to bear when we may have bought at one price, made gains then our portfolio drops. In practice, you could be liable for more gains that have attracted CGT than "profit" you show in your portfolio when there is a crash. It's hard to take but it's the way the Aust. Govt. is approaching crypto and all investing actually. At this stage, the ATO is treating crypto like all other investments and some of the differences may, in my opinion, not be fully appreciated by law makers and potentially may change in the future. I expect this would be a slow process. ——————— I realise ppl may say "Well, the tax office doesn't know what I'm up to and I will just declare any taxable gain when I cash out." That is your prerogative- I'm just passing on what the legal approach to this is FYI. Do with this info what you may- I hope it is helpful in some way.
https://codevalley.com/whitepaper.pdf This document treats Emergent coding from a philosophical perspective. It has a good introduction, description of the tech and is followed by two sections on justifications from the perspective of Fred Brooks No Silver Bullet criteria and an industrialization criteria.
Mark Fabbro's presentation from the Bitcoin Cash City Conference which outlines the motivation, basic mechanics, and usage of Bitcoin Cash in reproducing the industrial revolution in the software industry.
Building the Bitcoin Cash City presentation highlighting how the emergent coding group of companies fit into the adoption roadmap of North Queensland.
Forging Chain Metal by Paul Chandler CEO of Aptissio, one of startups in the emergent coding space and which secured a million in seed funding last year.
Bitcoin Cash App Exploration A series of Apps that are some of the first to be built by emergent coding and presented, and in the case of Cashbar, demonstrated at the conference.
How does Emergent Coding prevent developer capture? A developer's Agent does not know what project they are contributing to and is thus paid for the specific contribution. The developer is controlling the terms of the payment rather than the alternative, an employer with an employment agreement. Why does Emergent Coding use Bitcoin BCH?
Both emergent coding and Bitcoin BCH are decentralized: As emergent coding is a decentralized development environment consisting of Agents providing respective design services, each contract received by an agent requires a BCH payment. As Agents are hosted by their developer owners which may be residing in one of 150 countries, Bitcoin Cash - an electronic peer-to-peer electronic cash system - is ideal to include a developer regardless of geographic location.
Emergent coding will increase the value of the Bitcoin BCH blockchain: With EC, there are typically many contracts to build an application (Cashbar was designed with 10000 contracts or so). EC adoption will increase the value of the Bitcoin BCH blockchain in line with this influx of quality economic activity.
Emergent coding is being applied to BCH software first: One of the first market verticals being addressed with emergent coding is Bitcoin Cash infrastructure. We are already seeing quality applications created using emergent coding (such as the HULA, Cashbar, PH2, vending, ATMs etc). More apps and tools supporting Bitcoin cash will attract more merchants and business to BCH.
Emergent coding increases productivity: Emergent coding increases developer productivity and reduces duplication compared to other software development methods. Emergent coding can provide BCH devs with an advantage over other coins. A BCH dev productivity advantage will accelerate Bitcoin BCH becoming the first global currency.
Emergent coding produces higher quality binaries: Higher quality software leads to a more reliable network.
1. Who/what is Code Valley? Aptissio? BCH Tech Park? Mining and Server Complex? Code Valley Corp Pty Ltd is the company founded to commercialize emergent coding technology. Code Valley is incorporated in North Queensland, Australia. See https://codevalley.com Aptissio Australia Pty Ltd is a company founded in North Queensland and an early adopter of emergent coding. Aptissio is applying EC to Bitcoin BCH software. See https://www.aptissio.com Townsville Technology Precincts Pty Ltd (TTP) was founded to bring together partners to answer the tender for the Historic North Rail Yard Redevelopment in Townsville, North Queensland. The partners consist of P+I, Conrad Gargett, HF Consulting, and a self-managed superannuation fund(SMSF) with Code Valley Corp Pty Ltd expected to be signed as an anchor tenant. TTP answered a Townsville City Council (TCC) tender with a proposal for a AUD$53m project (stage 1) to turn the yards into a technology park and subsequently won the tender. The plan calls for the bulk of the money is to be raised in the Australian equity markets with the city contributing $28% for remediation of the site and just under 10% from the SMSF. Construction is scheduled to begin in mid 2020 and be competed two years later. Townsville Mining Pty Ltd was set up to develop a Server Complex in the Kennedy Energy Park in North Queensland. The site has undergone several studies as part of a due diligence process with encouraging results for its competitiveness in terms of real estate, power, cooling and data.
TM are presently in negotiations with the owners of the site and is presently operating under an NDA.
The business model calls for leasing "sectors" to mining companies that wish to mine allowing companies to control their own direction.
Since Emergent Coding uses the BCH rail, TM is seeking to contribute to BCH security with an element of domestic mining.
TM are working with American partners to lease one of the sectors to meet that domestic objective.
The site will also host Emergent Coding Agents and Code Valley and its development partners are expected to lease several of these sectors.
TM hopes to have the site operational within 2 years.
2. What programming language are the "software agents" written in. Agents are "built" using emergent coding. You select the features you want your Agent to have and send out the contracts. In a few minutes you are in possession of a binary ELF. You run up your ELF on your own machine and it will peer with the emergent coding and Bitcoin Cash networks. Congratulations, your Agent is now ready to accept its first contract. 3. Who controls these "agents" in a software project You control your own Agents. It is a decentralized development system. 4. What is the software license of these agents. Full EULA here, now. A license gives you the right to create your own Agents and participate in the decentralized development system. We will publish the EULA when we release the product. 5. What kind of software architecture do these agents have. Daemons Responding to API calls ? Background daemons that make remote connection to listening applications? Your Agent is a server that requires you to open a couple of ports so as to peer with both EC and BCH networks. If you run a BCH full node you will be familiar with this process. Your Agent will create a "job" for each contract it receives and is designed to operate thousands of jobs simultaneously in various stages of completion. It is your responsibility to manage your Agent and keep it open for business or risk losing market share to another developer capable of designing the same feature in a more reliable manner (or at better cost, less resource usage, faster design time etc.). For example, there is competition at every classification which is one reason emergent coding is on a fast path for improvement. It is worth reiterating here that Agents are only used in the software design process and do not perform any role in the returned project binary. 6. What is the communication protocol these agents use. The protocol is proprietary and is part of your license. 7. Are the agents patented? Who can use these agents? It is up to you if you want to patent your Agent the underlying innovation behind emergent coding is _feasible_ developer specialization. Emergent coding gives you the ability to contribute to a project without revealing your intellectual property thus creating prospects for repeat business; It renders software patents moot. Who uses your Agents? Your Agents earn you BCH with each design contribution made. It would be wise to have your Agent open for business at all times and encourage everyone to use your design service. 8. Do I need to cooperate with Code Valley company all of the time in order to deploy Emergent Coding on my software projects, or can I do it myself, using documentation? It is a decentralized system. There is no single point of failure. Code Valley intends to defend the emergent coding ecosystem from abuse and bad actors but that role is not on your critical path. 9. Let's say Electron Cash is an Emergent Coding project. I have found a critical bug in the binary. How do I report this bug, what does Jonald Fyookball need to do, assuming the buggy component is a "shared component" puled from EC "repositories"? If you built Electron Cash with emergent coding it will have been created by combining several high level wallet features designed into your project by their respective Agents. Obviously behind the scenes there are many more contracts that these Agents will let and so on. For example the Cashbar combines just 16 high level Point-of-Sale features but ultimately results in more than 10,000 contracts in toto. Should one of these 10,000 make a design error, Jonald only sees the high level Agents he contracted. He can easily pinpoint which of these contractors are in breach. Similarly this contractor can easily pinpoint which of its sub-contractors is in breach and so on. The offender that breached their contract wherever in the project they made their contribution, is easily identified. For example, when my truck has a warranty problem, I do not contact the supplier of the faulty big-end bearing, I simply take it back to Mazda who in turn will locate the fault. Finally "...assuming the buggy component is a 'shared component' puled from EC 'repositories'?" - There are no repositories or "shared component" in emergent coding. 10. What is your licensing/pricing model? Per project? Per developer? Per machine? Your Agent charges for each design contribution it makes (ie per contract). The exact fee is up to you. The resulting software produced by EC is unencumbered. Code Valley's pricing model consists of a seat license but while we are still determining the exact policy, we feel the "Valley" (where Agents advertise their wares) should charge a small fee to help prevent gaming the catalogue and a transaction fee to provide an income in proportion to operations. 11. What is the basic set of applications I need in order to deploy full Emergent Coding in my software project? What is the function of each application? Daemons, clients, APIs, Frontends, GUIs, Operating systems, Databases, NoSQLs? A lot of details, please. There's just one. You buy a license and are issued with our product called Pilot. You run Pilot (node) up on your machine and it will peer with the EC and BCH networks. You connect your browser to Pilot typically via localhost and you're in business. You can build software (including special kinds of software like Agents) by simply combining available features. Pilot allows you to specify the desired features and will manage the contracts and decentralized build process. It also gives you access to the "Valley" which is a decentralized advertising site that contains all the "business cards" of each Agent in the community, classified into categories for easy search. If we are to make a step change in software design, inventing yet another HLL will not cut it. As Fred Brooks puts it, an essential change is needed. 12. How can I trust a binary when I can not see the source? The Emergent Coding development model is very different to what you are use to. There are ways of arriving at a binary without Source code. The Agents in emergent coding design their feature into your project without writing code. We can see the features we select but can not demonstrate the source as the design process doesn't use a HLL. The trust model is also different. The bulk of the testing happens _before_ the project is designed not _after_. Emergent Coding produces a binary with very high integrity and arguably far more testing is done in emergent coding than in incumbent methods you are used to. In emergent coding, your reputation is built upon the performance of your Agent. If your Agent produces substandard features, you are simply creating an opportunity for a competitor to increase their market share at your expense. Here are some points worth noting regarding bad actor Agents:
An Agent is a specialist and in emergent coding is unaware of the project they are contributing to. If you are a bad actor, do you compromise every contract you receive? Some? None?
Your client is relying on the quality of your contribution to maintain their own reputation. Long before any client will trust your contributions, they will have tested you to ensure the quality is at their required level. You have to be at the top of your game in your classification to even win business. This isn't some shmuck pulling your routine from a library.
Each contract to your agent is provisioned. Ie you advertise in advance what collaborations you require to complete your design. There is no opportunity for a "sign a Bitcoin transaction" Agent to be requesting "send an HTTP request" collaborations.
Your Agent never gets to modify code, it makes a design contribution rather than a code contribution. There is no opportunity to inject anything as the mechanism that causes the code to emerge is a higher order complexity of all Agent involvement.
There is near perfect accountability in emergent coding. You are being contracted and paid to do the design. Every project you compromise has an arrow pointed straight at you should it be detected even years later.
Security is a whole other ball game in emergent coding and current rules do not necessarily apply. 13. Every time someone rebuilds their application, do they have to pay over again for all "design contributions"? (Or is the ability to license components at fixed single price for at least a limited period or even perpetually, supported by the construction (agent) process?) You are paying for the design. Every time you build (or rebuild) an application, you pay the developers involved. They do not know they are "rebuilding". This sounds dire but its costs far less than you think and there are many advantages. Automation is very high with emergent coding so software design is completed for a fraction of the cost of incumbent design methods. You could perhaps rebuild many time before matching incumbent methods. Adding features is hard with incumbent methods "..very few late-stage additions are required before the code base transforms from the familiar to a veritable monster of missed schedules, blown budgets and flawed products" (Brooks Jr 1987) whereas with emergent coding adding a late stage feature requires a rebuild and hence seamless integration. With Emergent Coding, you can add an unlimited number of features without risking the codebase as there isn't one. The second part of your question incorrectly assumes software is created from licensed components rather than created by paying Agents to design features into your project without any licenses involved. 14. In this construction process, is the vendor of a particular "design contribution" able to charge differential rates per their own choosing? e.g. if I wanted to charge a super-low rate to someone from a 3rd world country versus charging slightly more when someone a global multinational corporation wants to license my feature? Yes. Developers set the price and policy of their Agent's service. The Valley (where your Agent is presently advertised) presently only supports a simple price policy. The second part of your question incorrectly assumes features are encumbered with licenses. A developer can provide their feature without revealing their intellectual property. A client has the right to reuse a developer's feature in another project but will find it uneconomical to do so. 15. Is "entirely free" a supported option during the contract negotiation for a feature? Yes. You set the price of your Agent. 16. "There is no single point of failure." Right now, it seems one needs to register, license the construction tech etc. Is that going to change to a model where your company is not necessarily in that loop? If not, don't you think that's a single point of failure? It is a decentralized development system. Once you have registered you become part of a peer-to-peer system. Code Valley has thought long and hard about its role and has chosen the reddit model. It will set some rules for your participation and will detect or remove bad actors. If, in your view, Code Valley becomes a bad actor, you have control over your Agent, private keys and IP, you can leave the system at any time. 17. What if I can't obtain a license because of some or other jurisdictional problem? Are you allowed to license the technology to anywhere in the world or just where your government allows it? We are planning to operate in all 150 countries. As ec is peer-to-peer, Code Valley does not need to register as a digital currency exchange or the like. Only those countries banning BCH will miss out (until such times as BCH becomes the first global electronic cash system). 18.
For example the Cashbar combines just 16 high level Point-of-Sale features but ultimately results in more than 10,000 contracts in toto.
It seems already a reasonably complex application, so well done in having that as a demo. Thank you. 19. I asked someone else a question about how it would be possible to verify whether an application (let's say one received a binary executable) has been built with your system of emergent consensus. Is this possible? Yes of course. If you used ec to build an application, you can sign it and claim anything you like. Your client knows it came from you because of your signature. The design contributions making up the application are not signed but surprisingly there is still perfect accountability (see below). 20. I know it is possible to identify for example all source files and other metadata (like build environment) that went into constructing a binary, by storing this data inside an executable. All metadata emergent coding is now stored offline. When your Agent completes a job, you have a log of the design agreements you made with your peers etc., as part of the log. If you are challenged at a later date for breaching a design contract, you can pull your logs to see what decisions you made, what sub-contracts were let etc. As every Agent has their own logs, the community as a whole has a completely trustless log of each project undertaken. 21. Is this being done with EC build products and would it allow the recipient to validate that what they've been provided has been built only using "design contributions" cryptographically signed by their providers and nothing else (i.e. no code that somehow crept in that isn't covered by the contracting process)? The emergent coding trust model is very effective and has been proven in other industries. Remember, your Agent creates a feature in my project by actually combining smaller features contracted from other Agents, thus your reputation is linked to that of your suppliers. If Bosch makes a faulty relay in my Ford, I blame Ford for a faulty car not Bosch when my headlights don't work. Similarly, you must choose and vet your sub-contractors to the level of quality that you yourself want to project. Once these relationships are set up, it becomes virtually impossible for a bad actor to participate in the system for long or even from the get go. 22. A look at code generated and a surprising answer to why is every intermediate variable spilled? Thanks to u/R_Sholes, this snippet from the actual code for: number = number * 10 + digitgenerated as a part of: sub read/integeboolean($, 0, 100) -> guess
; copy global to local temp variable 0x004032f2 movabs r15, global.current_digit 0x004032fc mov r15, qword [r15] 0x004032ff mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403302 movabs rdi, local.digit 0x0040330c mov qword [rdi], rax ; copy global to local temp variable 0x0040330f movabs r15, global.guess 0x00403319 mov r15, qword [r15] 0x0040331c mov rax, qword [r15] 0x0040331f movabs rdi, local.num 0x00403329 mov qword [rdi], rax ; multiply local variable by constant, uses new temp variable for output 0x0040332c movabs r15, local.num 0x00403336 mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403339 movabs rbx, 10 0x00403343 mul rbx 0x00403346 movabs rdi, local.num_times_10 0x00403350 mov qword [rdi], rax ; add local variables, uses yet another new temp variable for output 0x00403353 movabs r15, local.num_times_10 0x0040335d mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403360 movabs r15, local.digit 0x0040336a mov rbx, qword [r15] 0x0040336d add rax, rbx 0x00403370 movabs rdi, local.num_times_10_plus_digit 0x0040337a mov qword [rdi], rax ; copy local temp variable back to global 0x0040337d movabs r15, local.num_times_10_plus_digit 0x00403387 mov rax, qword [r15] 0x0040338a movabs r15, global.guess 0x00403394 mov rdi, qword [r15] 0x00403397 mov qword [rdi], rax For comparison, an equivalent snippet in C compiled by clang without optimizations gives this output: imul rax, qword ptr [guess], 10 add rax, qword ptr [digit] mov qword ptr [guess], rax
Collaborations at the byte layer of Agents result in designs that spill every intermediate variable. Firstly, why this is so? Agents from this early version only support one catch-all variable design when collaborating. Similar to a compiler when all registers contain variables, the compiler must make a decision to spill a register temporarily to main memory. The compiler would still work if it spilled every variable to main memory but would produce code that would be, as above, hopelessly inefficient. However, by only supporting the catch-all portion of the protocol, the code valley designers were able to design, build and deploy these agents faster because an Agent needs fewer predicates in order to participate in these simpler collaborations. The protocol involved however, can have many "Policies" besides the catch-all default policy (Agents can collaborate over variables designed to be on the stack, or, as is common for intermediate variables, designed to use a CPU register, and so forth). This example highlights one of the very exciting aspects of emergent coding. If we now add a handful of additional predicates to a handful of these byte layer agents, henceforth ALL project binaries will be 10x smaller and 10x faster. Finally, there can be many Agents competing for market share at each of classification. If these "gumby" agents do not improve, you can create a "smarter" competitor (ie with more predicates) and win business away from them. Candy from a baby. Competition means the smartest agents bubble to the top of every classification and puts the entire emergent coding platform on a fast path for improvement. Contrast this with incumbent libraries which does not have a financial incentive to improve. Just wait until you get to see our production system. 23. How hard can an ADD Agent be? Typically an Agent's feature is created by combining smaller features from other Agents. The smallest features are so devoid of context and complexity they can be rendered by designing a handful of bytes in the project binary. Below is a description of one of these "byte" layer Agents to give you an idea how they work. An "Addition" Agent creates the feature of "adding two numbers" in your project (This is an actual Agent). That is, it contributes to the project design a feature such that when the project binary is delivered, there will be an addition instruction somewhere in it that was designed by the contract that was let to this Agent. If you were this Agent, for each contract you received, you would need to collaborate with peers in the project to resolve vital requirements before you can proceed to design your binary "instruction". Each paid contract your Agent receives will need to participate in at least 4 collaborations within the design project. These are:
Input A collaboration
Input B collaboration
Construction site collaboration
You can see from the collaborations involved how your Agent can determine the precise details needed to design its instruction. As part of the contract, the Addition Agent will be provisioned with contact details so it can join these collaborations. Your Agent must collaborate with other stakeholders in each collaboration to resolve that requirement. In this case, how a variable will be treated. The stakeholders use a protocol to arrive at an Agreement and share the terms of the agreement. For example, the stakeholders of collaboration “Input A” may agree to treat the variable as an signed 64bit integer, resolve to locate it at location 0x4fff2, or alternatively agree that the RBX register should be used, or agree to use one of the many other ways a variable can be represented. Once each collaboration has reached an agreement and the terms of that agreement distributed, your Agent can begin to design the binary instruction. The construction site collaboration is where you will exactly place your binary bytes. The construction site protocol is detailed in the whitepaper and is some of the magic that allows the decentralized development system to deliver the project binary. The protocol consists of 3 steps,
You request space in the project binary be reserved.
You are notified of the physical address of your requested space.
You delver the the binary bytes you designed to fill the reserved space.
Once the bytes are returned your Agent can remove the job from its work schedule. Job done, payment received, another happy customer with a shiny ADD instruction designed into their project binary. Note:
Observe how it is impossible for this ADD Agent to install a backdoor undetected by the client.
Observe how the Agent isn’t linking a module, or using a HLL to express the binary instruction.
Observe how with just a handful of predicates you have a working "Addition" Agent capable of designing the Addition Feature into a project with a wide range of collaboration agreements.
Observe how this Agent could conceivably not even design-in an ADD instruction if one of the design time collaboration agreements was a literal "1" (It would design in an increment instruction). There is even a case where this Agent may not deliver any binary to build its feature into your project!
24. How does EC arrive at a project binary without writing source code? Devs using EC combine features to create solutions. They don't write code. EC devs contract Agents which design the desired features into their project for a fee. Emergent coding uses a domain specific contracting language (called pilot) to describe the necessary contracts. Pilot is not a general purpose language. As agents create their features by similarly combining smaller features contracted from peer, your desired features may inadvertently result in thousands of contracts. As it is agents all the way down, there is no source code to create the project binary. Traditional: Software requirements -> write code -> compile -> project binary (ELF). Emergent coding: Select desired features -> contract agents -> project binary (ELF). Agents themselves are created the same way - specify the features you want your agent to have, contract the necessary agents for those features and viola - agent project binary (ELF). 25. How does the actual binary code that agents deliver to each other is written? An agent never touches code. With emergent coding, agents contribute features to a project, and leave the project binary to emerge as the higher-order complexity of their collective effort. Typically, agents “contribute” their feature by causing smaller features to be contributed by peers, who in turn, do likewise. By mapping features to smaller features delivered by these peers, agents ensure their feature is delivered to the project without themselves making a direct code contribution. Peer connections established by these mappings serve to both incrementally extend a temporary project “scaffold” and defer the need to render a feature as a code contribution. At the periphery of the scaffold, features are so simple they can be rendered as a binary fragment with these binary fragments using the information embodied by the scaffold to guide the concatenation back along the scaffold to emerge as the project binary - hence the term Emergent Coding. Note the scaffold forms a temporary tree-like structure which allows virtually all the project design contracts to be completed in parallel. The scaffold also automatically limits an agent's scope to precisely the resources and site for their feature. It is why it is virtually impossible for an agent to install a "back door" or other malicious code into the project binary.
I was tipped Nano, what's next? Congrats on receiving your first Nano tip! The first thing you should do is move your Nano to your own, secure wallet for safe keeping. This will only take 5-10 minutes. -- Setting up your wallet There is a number of wallets available that support Nano but we recommend: IOS: Natrium or Canoe Android: Natrium or Canoe PC/Web: Brainblocks Wallet Remember to carefully store your seed phrase during the wallet signup process. If you lose this seed you may lose access to your Nano. We recommend writing it down in multiple locations for additional peace of mind. -- Withdrawing your Nano from the Tip-bot Now that you have your wallet set-up you will need to PM the tip bot, u/nano_tipper to instruct it on where to send your funds. To withdraw your Nano, you should PM the bot the following:
send [amount of Nano] [your address]
Where the amount is the total value of the tips you have received ( You can PM the bot, "balance" if you do not know this) and the address is your wallet address, which you can find in the wallet app you have just downloaded, usually under "Receive" or "My Account" pages. e.g:
If you have any problems with this step, leave a comment below, visit the tip-bot documentation or official subreddit. -- What to do with your Nano Once you have your Nano in your own wallet, it's up to you what you want to do with it. Like any currency, you can save it, spend it or sell it: ---- > Spending Nano Like any currency, Nano is meant to be spent! and with zero fees & instantaneous transactions there is no better method to buy the products / services you love. Currently there are a number of things you can purchase with Nano, including: Games, gift-cards, hotel stays, in-game currency, gambling, takeaway food and even pay in-store in certain locations. List of stores accepting Nano Alternatively you can signup for Wirex and within 3-5 days receive a Visa debit card capable of spending Nano at any of millions of physical locations or online stores worldwide in which Visa is accepted. How does paying with Nano compare to other popular payment methods?
---- > Selling Nano You may wish to sell your Nano for your local currency (USD/EUGBP etc.) or exchange it for another cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. This is easy to do and should only take an hour even for someone new to Nano. To sell your Nano for a local / fiat currency, there are a number of services you can use, such as the following: Sell to USD: Kraken, Coingate Sell to EUR:Wirex, Kraken, Bitvavo, Coingate Sell to GBP:Wirex Other: Wirex (AUD, HKD, JPY, CAD) To sell your Nano in exchange for a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, we recommend the following: BTC: Binance, Kucoin ETH: Binance, Kucoin USDT: Binance Nollar: Txbit Full list of exchanges -- More information / Need help? For more information and/or help on moving/using/selling Nano, you can turn to the helpful folks on the official subreddit, nanocurrency or the official Nano Discord. --- --- --- What is Nano worth? At the time of posting, 1 Nano = $1.02 USD but you can check the current price here as it will fluctuate over time. --- --- --- What is Nano? Nano is a digital currency for the real world - the fast and free way to pay for everything in life. It features instant transactions, zero fees and is infinitely scalable. Gone are the days of complicated and energy-inefficient transactions - Nano is green and easy to use. --- --- --- What is Nano For Good? Nano For Good is a community-run (initially by three community members) initiative to help better promote Nano, fund Nano-based projects and support helpful community posts. With 45,000 Nano in our fund and over 18,000 Nano distributed & tipped to date. Follow our progress here: https://nanocrawler.cc/exploreaccount/xrb_3cnhdppkx46f9jnagbizhxo84zjfp17tznpcf6x9q47jkujjqbq48aag5fid
Kickstarter Roundup: May 27, 2018 | 38 Ending Soon (including: Skull Tales: Full Sail!) & 47 New This Week (including: 5-Minute Dungeon Expansion)
What this is:
This is a weekly, curated listing of Kickstarter tabletop games projects that are either:
newly posted in the past 7 days, or
ending in the next 7 days (starting tomorrow) and have at least a fighting chance of being funded.
All board game projects meeting those criteria will automatically be included, no need to ask. (But the occasional non-board game project may also sneak in!) Expect new lists each Sunday sometime between 12:00am and 12:00pm PST.
ENVYRA: Simultaneous Action Strategy Game You are part of fascinating Vortex of life where players compete for dominance. There are many strategies, but only one winner! (Has currently earned $7,982 of $4,000)
Cosmic Run: Regeneration A fun space race for 1-4 players from the designer of Biblios, Herbaceous, and other great games. Flat rate shipping - 20 day campaign. (Has currently earned $21,702 of $17,000)
Space Cats Fight Fascism: The Board Game Play as a band of rebel cats trying to stop fascists from seizing control of the galaxy in this cooperative board game! (Has currently earned $32,229 of $20,000)
Spin Matcher: Mesmerizing Marine Life Fast-paced memory training board game with STEAM-related content called Spin Matcher. This edition is about "Mesmerizing Marine Life." (Has currently earned $10,496 of $10,000)
Profanity: A Card Game For Smutty People Profanity is a delightfully smutty party game from the creators of Guards Against Insanity. You must be 17+ to back this campaign. (Has currently earned £3,574 of £1,000)
ecreature cards This is a card game for phone-a-holics and their facebook friends. Pass judgment, confess your addictions, and LOL without your phone! (Has currently earned $65 AUD of $10,000 AUD)
1347 - The Black Plague Boardgame We are a community with more than 600.000 followers. We make fun of modernity through historical comparisons, we produce gadget & games (Has currently earned €41,631 of €10,000)
BATTLE: Superheroes vs. Villains A tabletop card game where the Superheroes are trying to save the world, while the Villains are trying to achieve world domination. (Has currently earned $900 of $5,000)
Bitcon: Lose All Your Money A card game for people that want to experience the rollercoaster-like thrills of investing in Bitcoin without losing everything. (Has currently earned $1,077 AUD of $10,000 AUD)
GUESS DAT A New Orleans-based Guessing & Drinking Game (Has currently earned $1,096 of $5,000)
Helheim Unbound: Core Rulebook A collaborative storytelling tabletop RPG with easy to learn rules. The GM and players work together in building the setting. (Has currently earned $1,772 of $7,250)
Herbaceous Sprouts: A Flavorful Dice Game Unwind while enjoying this beautiful and thoughtful game of collecting seeds, using garden tools, and growing herb and flower sprouts. (Has currently earned $46,861 of $20,000)
Heroes Map A tabletop game for one or more players: find the optimal path to win (Has currently earned €433 of €50)
Itchy Monkey: a Battle of Lice Itchy Monkey: Spawn lice, colonize monkeys and become the real king of the jungle. An easy game to learn, but a hard one to master! (Has currently earned €3,299 of €9,000)
King of the Internet A card game with a simple premise: collect Fake Internet Points and become The King of the Internet. (Has currently earned $557 of $12,000)
Medakor - The Spinning Battling Fidget Game Not just a a toy. A spinning coin that has fidget capabilities. It's like dice & a top. For card game, board game players to enjoy. (Has currently earned $2,632 of $8,000)
MORE Cool Dice Bags! Great quality materials and original designs - choose the one you like best or grab a mix! (Has currently earned $2,157 of $500)
OFMOS - Be the CEO Play it like your favorite strategy game, or use it as a simulation to make business learning more meaningful and more accessible. (Has currently earned $1,618 of $25,000)
One Last Job: a Heist Card Game A 2-player customizable card game about a heist, where an opportunistic crew works to outmaneuver the shadowy Powers That Be (Has currently earned $5,754 of $40,000)
Panic Mode! A cooperative card game of office politics during Disaster Recovery for up to 8 players (Has currently earned $2,319 of $12,000)
Party Fowl: The Game of Drunk Ducks Party Fowl: The Game of Drunk Ducks is an area control game on a modular board where the goal is to be the coolest duck at a party. (Has currently earned $12,952 of $14,000)
Patto Cat the visual challenge card game! Even designer may lose! More than 40 Tricky Patterns to challenge your brain & eye. Let's race and see how many fish you can catch! (Has currently earned HK$20,700 of HK$25,000)
Pirates of Penryn! Charm & ferocity 'pon Cornish waters (Has currently earned £2,597 of £9,000)
Shadowrun: Sprawl Ops Boardgame Run fast, run hard, and beat the competition in this competitive worker-placement game featuring push-your-luck dice-rolling mayhem. (Has currently earned $62,010 of $25,000)
Show What You Know! A game that designed to test your knowledge in a fun and competitive way. With one minute to win it, this game will be a nail biter. (Has currently earned $3 of $5,000)
Skip55 the arithmetic board game Move by jumping over pieces and capturing the first jumped piece. Your score is the sum of the face value of your captured pieces. (Has currently earned ¥117,169 of ¥100,000)
Somnium: Rise of Laputa A newly discovered continent awaits you! Recruit nobility & sabotage rivals to become the ruler of Laputa in this 15 minute game. (Has currently earned $6,638 of $2,500)
Stonehaven Adventurers 2018 28 mm Pewter Miniatures: Heroes from all walks of life for tabletop wargames, dungeon crawling, role-playing games, and hobby painting. (Has currently earned $11,884 of $5,000)
SUMTASTIC The brand new, classic board game for playing solo or with friends. (Has currently earned £526 of £650)
The Seals of Cthulhu A strategic bidding and bluffing card game, set within a Cthulhian universe, where 2 players battle for the fate of the world. (Has currently earned $7,635 of $5,000)
The world’s first cryptocurrency, Bitcoin is stored and exchanged securely on the internet through a digital ledger known as a blockchain. Bitcoins are divisible into smaller units known as satoshis — each satoshi is worth 0.00000001 bitcoin. Bitcoin Price in USD, Euro, Bitcoin, CNY, GBP, JPY, AUD, CAD, KRW, BRL and ZAR. Generate Interactive Graph. Bitcoin (BTC) current price and Bitcoin details. Existing circulation, market capitalization, volume of transactions and more details of Bitcoin. Coins 6.848 +3. Market Cap ... Bitcoin - Australian Dollar Chart (BTC/AUD) Conversion rate for Bitcoin to AUD for today is A$15,177.19. It has a current circulating supply of 18.5 Million coins and a total volume exchanged of A$27,063,060,524 Bitcoin (BTC) price prediction 2020 A comprehensive guide to the factors that could influence Bitcoin’s value in the short, medium and long term. It is simply a reporting mechanism and there is no current policy in place or apparently being set up to restrict or curb the use of bitcoin in Australia. For digital currency exchange providers the Australian Parliament passed the Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financial Amendment act 2017A bill in December last year (2017) and ...
Online CryptoCurrency Calculator with multi-Cryptocurrencies Simple Bitcoin Converter
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